The Biblical Data
What is the biblical ground for the insistence that the minister of the gospel must proclaim repentance unto life along with a summons to faith in Jesus Christ? The Old Testament employs the two verb roots שׁוּב (s̊ûḇ, “turn,” “return”) and נָחַם (nāḥam, “repent”) when it calls for or speaks of repentance:
Isaiah 55:7: “Let the wicked forsake [יַעֲזֹב, ya˓azōḇ] his way and the evil man his thoughts. Let him turn [וְיָשֹׁב, weyās̊ōḇ] to the Lord, and he will have mercy on him, and to our God, for he will freely pardon.”
Joel 2:12–13: “Even now, declares the Lord, return שֻׁבוּ, [s̊ûḇû] to me with all your heart, with fasting and weeping and mourning. Rend your heart and not your garments. Return [וְשׁוּבוּ, wes̊ûḇû] to the Lord your God, for he is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and abounding in love, and he relents from sending calamity.”
Ezekiel 33:11: “As surely as I live, declares the Sovereign Lord, I take no pleasure in the death of the wicked, but rather that they turn from their ways and live. Turn! Turn [שׁוּבוּ שׁוּבוּ, s̊ûḇû s̊ûḇû] from your evil ways! Why will you die, O house of Israel?”
Job 42:5–6: “My ears had heard of you but now my eyes have seen you. Therefore I despise myself and repent [וְנִחַמְתִּי, weniḥamtî] in dust and ashes.”
Jeremiah 8:6: “I have listened attentively, but they do not say what is right. No one repents [נִחָם, niḥām] of his wickedness, saying, ‘What have I done?’“
The word-groups denoting repentance in the New Testament are primarily from μετανοέω, metanoeō, (34 times) and μετάνοια, metanioia, (22 times), meaning “to change one’s mind” and “a change of mind” respectively; and secondarily from στρέφω, strephō, and ἐπιστρέφω, epistrephō, meaning literally “to turn” and “to turn about” respectively (but both are consistently translated “convert” or “be converted”), and μεταμέλομαι, metamelomai, meaning “to become concerned about afterwards.”
The glorified Christ placed beyond all doubt that repentance is to be a part of gospel proclamation, when he declared on the evening of his resurrection from the dead: “This is what is written: that the Messiah should suffer and rise from the dead the third day, and that repentance for [μετάνοιαν εἰς, metanoian eis] forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed [κηρυχθῆναι, kērychthēnai] in his name to all nations” (Luke 24:46–47). As did John the Baptist before him (Matt. 3:2, 8, 11; Mark 1:4; Luke 3:3, 8; Acts 13:24; 19:4), Jesus himself preached repentance in the imperative mood (Matt. 4:17; Mark 1:15), characterized the very purpose behind his coming to people in terms of calling sinners to repentance (Luke 5:32), warned that unless sinners repented they would perish (Luke 13:3, 5) and unless they were converted (στραφῆτε, straphēte) and became as little children, they would never enter the kingdom of heaven (Matt. 18:3), denounced whole cities that would not repent while commending Nineveh for repenting at the preaching of Jonah (Matt. 11:20–21; 12:41; Luke 10:13; 11:32), and declared that heaven rejoices over one sinner who repents (Luke 15:7, 10). The apostles, on their preaching missions throughout Galilee, “preached that people should repent” (Mark 6:12), and they continued to be true to this aspect of their Lord’s commission throughout the Book of Acts (Peter in Acts 2:38; 3:19; 8:22; Paul in Acts 17:30; 20:21; 26:20). The author of Hebrews indicates that “repentance from dead works” is a first principle of the doctrine of Christ (Heb. 6:1).
Its “Gift Character” As Procured by Christ’s Cross Work and Effected by Regeneration
As the response to God’s sovereign, effectual summons that was procured by Christ’s cross work (as is every spiritual blessing the Christian receives) and made effectual by his Spirit’s regenerating operations in the soul, repentance unto life is represented in Scripture as a gift of God. The Psalmist prayed: “O God, turn us … that we may be saved” (Ps. 80:3, 7, 19) and Ephraim and Jeremiah prayed respectively: “Turn me, O Lord, and I will be turned” (Jer. 31:18; Lam. 5:21). Peter declared that God exalted Christ to his own right hand as Prince and Savior “in order to give repentance and forgiveness of sins to Israel” (Acts 5:31, emphasis added). Upon hearing Peter’s testimony regarding the conversion of Cornelius’s household, the Jerusalem church “glorified God, saying: ‘Then to the Gentiles also God has given [ἔδωκεν, edōken] repentance unto life’ ” (Acts 11:18, emphasis added). And Paul instructs Timothy that the Lord’s servant should gently correct the non-Christian opposition “in the hope that God may give [δώη, dōē] to them repentance leading to a knowledge of the truth” (2 Tim. 2:25, emphasis added).
Its Distinction from Mere “Worldly Sorrow”
Godly sorrow for sin that leads to true repentance, characterized (1) in Acts 11:18 as “repentance leading unto life,” (2) in 2 Corinthians 7:10 as “repentance leaving no regrets and leading to salvation,” and (3) in 2 Timothy 2:25 as “repentance leading to a knowledge of the truth,” must be distinguished from what Paul calls in 2 Corinthians 7:10 “worldly sorrow [that] produces death.”
Paul’s “worldly sorrow [that] produces death” is amply illustrated by the sorrow of the rich young ruler and of Judas. The rich young ruler, when he heard Jesus’ requirements for discipleship, “became very sorrowful” (Luke 18:23). But his was a “worldly sorrow,” because, being “a man of great wealth,” he regarded his wealth as of greater value than the privilege of following Jesus. So he went away. Again, when Judas saw that Jesus had been condemned, “feeling remorse, he returned the thirty pieces of silver” (Matt. 27:3). But his was a “worldly remorse” because it did not lead to the “repentance leaving no regrets and leading to salvation.” Instead, it drove him to suicide. But to the Corinthians Paul writes:
I now rejoice, not because you were made sorrowful, but because you were made sorrowful to the point of repentance, for you were made sorrowful as God intended.… For the sorrow that God intends produces repentance leaving no regrets and leading to salvation; but worldly sorrow produces death. For behold what earnestness this sorrow that God intends has produced in you, what eagerness to clear yourselves, what indignation, what fear, what longing, what zeal, what readiness to see justice done. (emphases supplied)
The Scriptures are clear that men may feel remorse over their sins for any number of reasons. But unless their sorrow for sin is their response to their sense of not only the danger of but also of the filthiness and odiousness of their sins as contrary to the holy nature and righteous law of God, which then compels them so to hate their sins that they turn from them to God with full purpose and endeavor to walk with him in all the ways of his commandments, it must be judged as mere “worldly sorrow that produces death.” Godly sorrow, the sinner’s response to the Spirit’s regenerating work in his soul which normally accompanies the evangelical preaching of the doctrine of repentance, produces “repentance leaving no regrets and leading unto salvation.”
Summary of the Doctrine
“Repentance unto life is a saving grace, whereby a sinner out of a true sense of his sin, and apprehension of the mercy of God in Christ, doth, with grief and hatred of his sin, turn from it unto God, with full purpose of, and endeavor after, new obedience” (Shorter Catechism, Question 87). As the root implies in μετανοέω, metanoeō, and μετάνοια, metanoia, (the most common words for repentance in the New Testament), it entails a radical and conscious change of view (the intellect), change of feeling (the emotions), and change of purpose (the volition) with respect to God, ourselves, sin, and righteousness. We acknowledge that we are sinners and that our sin entails personal guilt, defilement, and helplessness before God; we sorrow with a “godly sorrow” for the sins we have committed against the holy and just God; and we resolve to seek pardon and cleansing from God through the blood of Christ which alone satisfies the offended justice of God. So in turning from our sins in repentance we turn to Christ in faith for salvation.
We Need Not Romans To Validate The Doctrines Of God’s Sovereign Grace In Saving Sinners – The Words Of Jesus In John’s Gospel Will Suffice
When one goes to the book of Romans to state the case for God’s sovereign, free grace in saving sinners (aka, “Calvinism”), many times one will see the eyes of his audience glaze over and roll, the unspoken message being, “Not Romans again…”
Well, one does not need Paul’s letter to the church at Rome to see the biblical root and basis of these doctrines of grace. The gospel of John – with the words of Jesus Himself – do a marvelous job of expressing the sovereign, free pleasure of God in saving His people. Recently, Steven Lawson taught a series which Ligonier Ministries has issued in video formats on this very issue and it is quite valuable.
Prior to that, however, the Chapel Library in Florida issued a free booklet written by a man named Bruce Steward. In this booklet – a mere thirty-two pages long – Mr. Steward lays out the case for the doctrines of grace in a very layman-friendly format and manner. Even you disagree with these doctrines, Mr. Steward represents them fairly and biblically.
Sam Waldron comes highly recommended by yours truly. When I was able to take classes from Reformed Baptist Seminary, I took two classes from Dr. Waldron and his material is top-notch.
10/10/13: Eternal Life Ministries is offering this series on DVD for free – no telling how long this offer will be available.
Greg Nichols is a pastor at Grace Immanuel Reformed Baptist Church in Grand Rapids, Michigan, and an instructor at Reformed Baptist Seminary. Audio and video from the series are available below. The videos are in WMV format and will need to be downloaded to your computer first before viewing. (From Sovereign Grace Audio Treasures)
12) God's Simplicity
14) God's Aseity
34) God's Justice
No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him. And I will raise him up on the last day.
In this clip, Dr. Sproul recounts the time he was asked to engage in a debate concerning this topic. The word in question is ἑλκύω (helkuō). It is found in the New Testament in the following verses:
And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself.”
Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and struck the high priest’s servant and cut off his right ear. (The servant’s name was Malchus.)
He said to them, “Cast the net on the right side of the boat, and you will find some.” So they cast it, and now they were not able to haul it in, because of the quantity of fish.
But when her owners saw that their hope of gain was gone, they seized Paul and Silas and dragged them into the marketplace before the rulers.
Then all the city was stirred up, and the people ran together. They seized Paul and dragged him out of the temple, and at once the gates were shut.
But you have dishonored the poor man. Are not the rich the ones who oppress you, and the ones who drag you into court?
Definitions of this word include:
a prim. vb.; to drag:—drag(1), dragged(2), draw(1), draws(1), drew(2), haul(1). Thomas, R. L. (1998). New American Standard Hebrew-Aramaic and Greek dictionaries : Updated edition. Anaheim: Foundation Publications, Inc.
ἑλκύω hĕlkuō, hel-koo´-o; or ἕλκω hĕlkō, hel´-ko; prob. akin to 138; to drag (lit. or fig.):—draw. comp. 1667. Strong, J. (2009). Vol. 1: A Concise Dictionary of the Words in the Greek Testament and The Hebrew Bible (27). Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software.
ἑλκύω (helkuō): vb.; ≡ Str 1670; TDNT 2.503—an alternate lexical form based on the inflected form with an upsilon manifest, yet considered only a part of the inflection, MHT 2:236; see ἕλκω (helkō), just below ἕλκω (helkō): vb. [served by 1816]; ≡ Str 1670—1. LN 15.212 pull in, drag, draw, haul in (Jn 6:44; 12:32; 18:10; 21:6, 11+); 2. LN 15.178 lead by force (Ac 16:19; 21:30; Jas 2:6+) Swanson, J. (1997). Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains: Greek (New Testament) (electronic ed.). Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc.
(impf εἷλκον, fut ἑλκύσω, aor εἵλκυσα, subj 3 sg ἑλκύσῃ)
a pull: 15.212
b lead by force: 15.178 Louw, J. P., & Nida, E. A. (1996). Vol. 2: Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament: Based on semantic domains (electronic ed. of the 2nd edition.) (82). New York: United Bible Societies.
- Transliteration: Helkuo
- Phonetic: hel-koo’-o
1. to draw, drag off
2. metaph., to draw by inward power, lead, impel
- Origin: probably akin to G138
- TDNT entry: 10:23,2
- Part(s) of speech: Verb (Thayer)
tn Or “attracts him,” or “pulls him.” The word is used of pulling or dragging, often by force. It is even used once of magnetic attraction (A. Oepke, TDNT 2:503).
sn The Father who sent me draws him. The author never specifically explains what this “drawing” consists of. It is evidently some kind of attraction; whether it is binding and irresistible or not is not mentioned. But there does seem to be a parallel with 6:65, where Jesus says that no one is able to come to him unless the Father has allowed it. This apparently parallels the use of Isaiah by John to reflect the spiritual blindness of the Jewish leaders (see the quotations from Isaiah in John 9:41 and 12:39–40). Biblical Studies Press. (2006). The NET Bible First Edition Notes (Jn 6:44). Biblical Studies Press.
Yes, before one objects, there could be other nuances in 6:44, so the dictionaries/lexicons are not absolutely definitive here. One should, however, give theological thought to these definitions – they do present a rather compelling (no pun intended) argument for what Dr. Sproul says in this clip: